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“One Health” Session Scheduled for the North American Veterinary Conference (NAVC), in Orlando, Florida (USA) Monday, January 17, 2011 - Friday, August 13, 2010

A good reason to attend the …

“One Health” Session Scheduled for the North American Veterinary Conference (NAVC), in Orlando, Florida (USA) Monday, January 17,  2011 www.navc.com

One of the outstanding featured speakers, a noted wildlife veterinarian will be:

 

Paul P. Calle, VMD, Dipl ACZM
Director, Zoological Health

Global Health Program

Wildlife Conservation Society

2300 Southern Blvd.

Bronx, NY 10460-1099

www.wcs.org

 

Dr. Calle’s speech will explore ““One World One Health®  – A Field Veterinary Perspective”.

 

Dr. Calle cogently and briefly describes his One Health message as “The inextricable link between people, domestic and wild animals, and their diseases, has never been more obvious or of concern than it is today. With outbreaks of SARS, Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza, and Ebola virus capturing the public’s attention, the concept that we only have One World and share One Health is on the front pages of newspapers around the world. The need to increase the linkages between public health, the health of domestic animals, and the health and conservation of wild animals has generated discussions and collaborations unheard of only a few years ago. This talk will present an overview of the Wildlife Conservation Society’s pioneering One World One Health® activities around the world, which include international symposia and workshops on the topic held in New York City and Bangkok, Thailand in 2004; Beijing, China in 2005; and Brasilia, Brazil in 2007 as well as ongoing global field veterinary activities to investigate diseases and their relationships to people, domestic and wild animals.”

 

In coming months, the One Health Initiative website will feature other topics to be discussed by individual speakers in the NAVC scheduled One Health session. 

 

Private practicing veterinarians, physicians and other health scientists in the U.S., Canada and worldwide are urged to consider attending. 

 

 

 

 


Eco-epidemiology and control of Chagas disease in northern Argentina - Tuesday, August 10, 2010

Eco-epidemiology and control of Chagas disease in northern Argentina

 

A long-term One Health collaborative effort of the University of Buenos Aires (led by Ricardo Gürtler, PhD), Rockefeller and Columbia University (Joel E. Cohen, PhD) and Emory University (Uriel Kitron, PhD, MPH) on the ecology, epidemiology and suppression of Chagas disease in the Argentinean Chaco.

 

A strength of the project is that it addresses all facets of transmission and risk, including the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi (which causes Chagas disease), the insect vectors, the wildlife and domestic reservoir hosts, humans and the physical and biological environments. Among the major findings of the projects is the high degree of heterogeneity in all of these components of the transmission systems. Infestations are highly aggregated, with only a few premises harboring high-density bug colonies. Some peridomestic structures with particular physical attributes maintain residual bug colonies that can recover to pre-intervention numbers and propagate through the community by flight dispersal.

 

Among our main findings are the inter-connectedness between domestic, peridomestic and Sylva tic populations of the main vector Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), the importance of super-spreader dogs and high-risk sites, the occurrence of unanticipated sylvatic foci of Triatoma infestans, and the economically optimal role for community action in sustainable Chagas disease intervention programs.

 

A key finding of the study is the importance of dogs to the transmission of T. cruzi and to the surveillance of Chagas disease. Dogs are the key reservoir for T. cruzi and the major source of infection for Triatoma infestans, the main vector of Chagas disease in the Chaco, with a force of infection that is 14 times higher than that of humans. Dogs, whose average lifespan in the rural Chaco is only 3.5 years, also fulfill all the criteria for an optimal sentinel for Chagas disease. Trypanosoma cruzi infection is aggregated at the household level along the “80-20 rule”, with a small fraction of the seropositive dog, and to a lesser extent cat and human populations, showing high capacity to infect bugs. Field and experimental evidence shows that dogs are the preferred domestic bloodmeal source of T. infestans.

 

At the district-wide level, high domestic infestation was clustered in high human-density areas with higher land surface temperature and more degraded landscapes. Anthropogenic changes in the environment, including deforestation, introduction of cash crops and changes in land ownership patterns have had major impacts on wildlife, including suspected reservoir hosts such as opossums and skunks.

 

In addition to over forty scientific papers that resulted from the project, there is a strong training component for undergraduate and graduate students, post-docs and veterinarians, and the project is based on and committed to community participation and sustainable improvement in public health.

 

Links to free access key papers (all accessible through PubMed):

 

Ceballos 2009 - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2782367/

Gurtler, PNAS -  http://www.pnas.org/content/104/41/16194.long

Vazquez-Prokopec, PLOS NTD - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2613538/

Gurtler, Parasitology - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2669415/

Cecere, EID -  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1853288/

Cardinal 2009

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6T7F-4SKB3H6-1&_user=655046&_coverDate=11%2F30%2F2008&_rdoc=1&_fmt=high&_orig=search&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_acct=C000034138&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=655046&md5=ae152424e7353e5e6659ed8aeb08fdcc

 

Uriel Kitron, PhD, MPH

Department of Environmental Studies

400 Dowman Drive

Math and Science Center, Suite E511

Emory University

Atlanta, GA  30322

Tel: (404) 727-4253; fax: (404) 727-4448

ukitron@emory.edu; http://www.envs.emory.edu                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

 

Ricardo Gürtler, PhD

CONICET Scientific Investigator

Professor and Head

Laboratory of Eco-Epidemiology

Faculty of Natural and Exact Sciences

University of Buenos Aires

Argentina

 

Dr. Kitron graciously provided this article to the One Health Initiative website. This was requested following the previous July 28, 2010 OHI website Publications page http://www.onehealthinitiative.com/publications.php (scroll down) posting of a news item on NEWKERALA.COM.  Prepared by Drs. Kitron and Gürtler, it is expected to be re-printed in the One Health Newsletter’s Fall issue http://www.onehealthinitiative.com/newsletter.php.


Cancer clue found in animal diseases - Friday, August 06, 2010

UPI.com

 

Science News

 

Cancer clue found in animal diseases


VANCOUVER, British Columbia, July 26 (UPI) -- Canadian researchers say an unexpected connection between an animal disease and human cancers could lead to effective cancer therapies. … Read more:

 

http://www.upi.com/Science_News/2010/07/26/Cancer-clue-found-in-animal-diseases/UPI-23611280190685/


One Health or… some health? - Tuesday, August 03, 2010

An OPINION:

 

One Health or… some health?

 

"When the eagles are silent, parrots begin to jabber." - Winston Churchill

 

 Bruce Kaplan, DVM

 

The international One Health movement has expanded during the early 21st century.  It even sports the name “One Health” in most circles instead of “One Medicine”, the phrase promoted by the late Dr. Calvin Schwabe, the renowned public health veterinarian and parasitologist.  Actually, the two are essentially synonymous unless you want to split hairs.  One Health has been adopted by most to primarily designate a wider collaborative interdisciplinary inclusion.

 

I met and spent part of a morning and lunch with Dr. Schwabe at the home of his close friends, the family of the late noted public health figure,  Oscar Sussman, DVM, MPH, LL.B in Princeton, New Jersey (USA) in the early 1960s.  Schwabe was a brilliant, gentle, unpretentious person.  He called the concept “One Medicine” and was himself more oriented towards the public health (epidemiological) applicability.  Nonetheless, I am confident that if asked today, he would say something like, “whatever you call it, it needs to be implemented across the board in public health and clinical medicine for the benefit of human [and animal] health.”

 

While implementation still remains sometime in the future, the One Health movement has become and is becoming widely accepted worldwide, particularly in public health communities.  Regrettably, although One Health principles apply exceptionally well to protecting nations’ public health, it also applies equally well to clinical medical and surgical research (comparative medicine) and hence in private practice, i.e. in the fields of cancer, cardiovascular disease, orthopedic conditions, obesity, and many others.  By perusing the One Health Initiative website www.onehealthinitiative.com and the online quarterly One Health Newsletter http://www.onehealthinitiative.com/newsletter.php, one can find numerous examples of One Health advances for both disciplines, viz. public health and clinical health care.

 

Much more One Health activity is evident in public health academic communities than among clinical health academic circles.  It is practically non-existent and for the most part unheard of within the practicing veterinary medical and human medical communities.  Specifically, practicing veterinarians and physicians in private practices generally do not know about One Health and those that hear of it ask the legitimate question, “So, what is in it for us?”

 

If One Health activists continue to only stress public health to the exclusion of clinical medical/surgical research and neglect indoctrinating our practitioner colleagues into “What’s in it for all of us”… we will travel the path of “some health” and not ONE HEALTH.  Protecting and saving untold millions of lives requires recognition and implementation of, by and for both disciplines.

 

 

Dr. Bruce Kaplan is a member of the One Health Initiative website team along with Laura H. Kahn, MD, MPH, MPP, Thomas P. Monath, MD, and Jack Woodall, PhD.  He also serves on the editorial board of the One Health Newsletter and has been a co-author contributor to One Health articles with One Health Newsletter editor Mary Echols, DVM, MPH.  Dr. Echols was the first to appreciate and express the practical, bottom line phrase “so, what’s in it for us” relative to when many initially consider supporting the One Health concept.

 

 

Comments about this Opinion piece are welcomed.   Opinions and comments about One Health are encouraged.  Selected appropriate messages will be posted upon receipt of permission from author(s).  Please send to kkm@onehealthinitiative.com c/o Contents Manager.

 


One Health Article Appears in International Innovation Magazine - Saturday, July 31, 2010

 

One Health Article Appears in International Innovation Magazine: Research Media Ltd.

 

http://www.research-europe.com/

 

The One Health concept was elucidated in a Question and Answer piece that was recently widely distributed online and in a hard copy format through International Innovation magazine, published June 2010.

 

Laura H. Kahn, MD, MPH, MPP, a prominent member of this One Health Initiative team and a recognized leader in the international One Health movement gave a significant and thoughtful One Health interview

 

Please see the link below… 

http://www.research-europe.com/index.php/2010/07/dr-laura-kahn-on-the-one-health-initiative/

 

Note: The entire magazine may also be viewed via the following links 

http://www.research-europe.com/magazine/HEALTHCARE/JUN10/pageflip.html

 

International Innovation Magazine Information:

http://www.research-europe.com/index.php/digital_magazine/

 

You may register on the Research Media website to gain full access to the entire publication, this is free and quick with your registration being approved within 24 hours.

 

“International Innovation is the leading global dissemination resource for the wider scientific, technology and research communities. Produced under four titles, each title serves a key scientific area that is of particular relevance in today’s global environment.”

Click the link below to complete the online form to subscribe to the printed magazine.
Research Media Subscription Form or http://www.research-europe.com/subscribe.php

 


UN agriculture agency adopts new strategy to combat animal disease outbreaks - Thursday, July 29, 2010

UN News Center

 

UN agriculture agency adopts new strategy to combat animal disease outbreaks

26 July 2010 – Strengthening measures to prevent and control outbreaks of animal diseases could result in the saving of large amounts of money for governments, the United Nations agriculture agency said today, announcing a new strategy to more effectively detect and combat the diseases.

The UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) said it had drawn on its experience in past animal health emergencies to develop the “One Health” initiative, which aims to improve global response to disease outbreaks, implement effective prevention and containment strategies and manage risks. … Read more:

http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=35426&Cr=fao&Cr1=


Experts say H5N1 picture not greatly improved since 2003 - Wednesday, July 28, 2010

Center for Infectious Disease Research & Policy
Academic Health Center -- University of Minnesota

Experts say H5N1 picture not greatly improved since 2003

http://www.cidrap.umn.edu/cidrap/content/influenza/avianflu/news/jul2310avian2.html

Jul 23, 2010 (CIDRAP News) – The global H5N1 avian influenza situation has not improved very much since the virus began spreading widely in 2003, and many human cases have probably gone unreported, French health experts conclude in an assessment published yesterday in Eurosurveillance.

While the deadly virus still has not gained the ability to spread easily from person to person, "The overall worldwide situation of influenza A(H5N1) . . . is not markedly improved since 2003," says the report by researchers from the French Institute for Public Health Surveillance (Institut de Veille Sanitaire) in Saint-Maurice, a French government agency.

"This fact, and regular reintroduction of the virus by wild birds in countries where foci have been controlled (such as Bulgaria, Romania, Turkey or Vietnam) underscore the importance of maintaining adequate surveillance and response capacities for infections in both animals and humans," the authors add.

They also write that the World Health Organization's (WHO's) human H5N1 case count "probably vastly underrepresents the true case burden worldwide." The count reached 501 cases, including 297 deaths, yesterday.

In Indonesia, they say, the case-fatality rate (CFR) for H5N1 is 88%, and nearly all the cases identified since January 2009 have been on the island of Java, which suggests that access to diagnosis is uneven and that severe cases are overrepresented in the official count.

The CFR is lower in Egypt, probably reflecting better access to timely diagnosis and care, the report adds, "but suspected human cases occurring in remote locations may not all be officially detected and/or reported and would have contributed to a higher CFR."

Reviewing the H5N1 situation in birds, the authors note that 63 countries and territories in Asia, Africa, and Europe have had outbreaks in poultry and/or wild birds since the end of 2003. Twelve countries have had poultry outbreaks so far this year: Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Israel, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Romania, and Vietnam.

"Many other countries, notably in sub-Saharan Africa, have suspected transmission in predominantly backyard flocks but lack surveillance systems to document it," the article says.

Discussing the patterns of human cases, the report observes that the numbers have generally trended downward over the past 6 years and that most cases have occurred in the months from November to April, though Indonesia has cases throughout the year. In recent years the number of cases has fallen in Asia and grown in the Near East, mainly Egypt. The latter accounted for 66 of 149 cases (44%) from Jan 1, 2008, to Jul 1, 2010.

At least 40 clusters of human cases, accounting for more than 100 illnesses in all, have occurred since 2003, the researchers report. Common exposure to sick poultry was the source of infection in the vast majority of these, but investigators concluded that limited human-to-human transmission occurred in some of the clusters, most of which were in families.

Genetic susceptibility probably has played some role in the clusters, as suggested by the three-generation cluster in Indonesia in 2006 and by clusters in Turkey, the report says. It adds that no instances of transmission in healthcare settings have been confirmed since 2003.

In conclusion, the experts say that some countries that were hit hard by H5N1 before 2007, such as Thailand and Turkey, seem to have controlled the problem and reduced risks to humans. But the virus continues to circulate in poultry elsewhere, especially Egypt, Indonesia, and Bangladesh.

While Egypt and Indonesia face a complex situation, "communication in these countries is transparent and constructive and allows for quick reporting of cases, especially if suspected clusters should arise," the article says. It notes that Indonesia authorities last December resumed the practice of reporting cases to the WHO. In June 2008 the Indonesian health minister had said the government would no longer report cases as they occurred and instead would give only periodic updates.

The virus still has the potential to spark a human pandemic, the researchers state. Unlike in 2003 and 2004, poultry outbreaks and human cases now are occurring in some of the most densely populated areas in the world, which may increase the risk of transmission from birds to humans and make it harder to contain the virus if it starts spreading among humans, the experts assert.

Tarantola A, Barboza P, Gauthier V, et al. The influenza A(H5N1) epidemic at six and a half years: 500 notified human cases and more to come. Eurosurveillance 2010 Jul 22;15(29) [Full text] http://www.eurosurveillance.org/ViewArticle.aspx?ArticleId=19619


The One Health Initiative Website Welcomes …Worldwide One Health Submissions for Posting - Monday, July 26, 2010

 

OPEN NOTICE (Contact Us):

 The One Health Initiative Website Welcomes …

 Worldwide One Health Submissions for Posting on:

·                         One Health News page

·                         Publications page

·                         Upcoming Events page

Comments and suggestions also appreciated...

 Please send to kkm@onehealthinitiative.com c/o Contents Manager

_____________________________________

Bottom line of One Health Implementation:  Untold millions of lives will be protected and/or saved in our generation and those to come!


One Health: The Intersection of Humans, Animals and the Environment - Institute for Laboratory Animal Research (ILAR) Journal Volume 51, Number 3 - Friday, July 23, 2010

One Health: The Intersection of Humans, Animals and the Environment

 

Please see the current issue of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research (ILAR) Journal Volume 51, Number 3.

 

http://www.ilarjournal.com/index.html

 

The One Health Initiative website team considers this to be a significant and important contribution to One Health literature.  In toto, it provides more concrete evidence sustaining the premise recognized by many international health scientists that One Health implementation is essential for this generation and for those to come. One Health implementation will help protect and/or save untold millions of lives in our generation and for those to come.

 

Introduction: One Health Perspective (first article) may be viewed by the gracious permission of the ILAR Journal, National Research Council of the National Academies, Washington, D.C. 20001 via issue Managing Editor, Cameron H. Fletcher.  

 

Please see PDF on the Publications page of this website at http://www.onehealthinitiative.com/publications.php (scroll down).

 

Issue Editor: James G. Fox, DVM, MS, DACLAM

                   Director of the Division of Comparative Medicine and

                   Professor in the Division of Biological Engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology

                   Cambridge, MA 02139

 


“One Health in Action” pearl from a Veterinarian who teaches in a U. S. Medical School - Monday, July 19, 2010

“One Health in Action” pearl from a Veterinarian who teaches in a U. S. Medical School

 

An article in The Scientist.com  http://www.the-scientist.com/2010/7/1/22/1/  entitled ‘Litter bug’ presents some interesting stories about the transmission of the protozoan disease toxoplasmosis caused by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii.  It occurs worldwide in mammals and birds and is a common infection in humans.

 

The true ‘stories’ are always more complex than the media ones; it's always an interesting classroom session when I explain to 2nd-yr. medical students that humans are much more likely to become infected with 'toxo' [toxoplasmosis] from eating undercooked pork, lamb, or beef than they are from handling the litter boxes of house cats, especially if those cats are fed commercial cat food.

 

Since the advent of HIV, case-control studies have shown no causal association[s] between the opportunistic clinical toxoplasmosis suffered by many AIDS patients and their ownership of domestic cats.

 

When I explain how easily feed grains in bins and silos can be 'infested' w/mice, rats, and feral cat feces and that, sometimes, those feces & mummified mice end up in the feed mill ... you can almost see the light bulb 'turn on' above the students' heads; most of them have no rural or agricultural experiences and never thought about the pathway that red meat actually takes to the supermarket.  Sadly, even today (esp. after the popular press releases of the mid-'70s), most 'human school' microbiology faculty still over-emphasize the toxoplasmosis/cat feces "link", but not the importance of meat hygiene, i.e. cooking meat thoroughly.  Having said that, I also tell the students that immunocompromised humans, and especially pregnant women, should be counseled to only eat meat that has been thoroughly cooked, and always practice adequate hand washing following taking care of any of the family's pet animals.   

 

Provided by Dr. Ronald Warner:

 

Ronald D. Warner, DVM, MPVM, PhD
Professor
Director, TravelMed Clinic
Director, Preventive Medicine Division

Coordinator, Comm. Med./Public Hlth Residency Rotation
Dept of Family and Community Medicine, School of Medicine
Texas Tech Univ. Health Sciences Center
3601 4th Street
Lubbock, TX 79430-8143 (USA)
e-mail: ronald.warner@ttuhsc.edu  
voice: (806) 743-1100, ext 261
fax: (806) 743-1292


 
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