One Health News
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|One Health History Study Award Granted To London Imperial College (UK) from Wellcome Trust - Wednesday, October 20, 2010
One Health History Study Award Granted To London Imperial College (UK) from Wellcome Trust
“The Centre for the History of Science, Technology and Medicine at Imperial
College London, England, has won a prestigious, 5-year award from the
Wellcome Trust to study the history of One Health. Worth over £0.5m
[over $792,000 at current U.S. dollar exchange rate], it
will involve five researchers working over a five year period. The project
will be led by Dr. Abigail Woods, senior lecturer in medical history and a
qualified veterinary surgeon.
While the importance of a One Health approach to human and animal disease
is now widely recognised, its application is not always straightforward.
History will be used to help explain this situation.
During the late 19th century golden age, scientists like Virchow, Pasteur,
Theobald Smith and John McFadyean straddled the human-animal divide and
made significant breakthroughs. Subsequently, however, barriers developed
between human and animal health, preventing the pursuit of One Health. The
circumstances under which these barriers developed are not fully
understood. Moreover, the barriers were not universal: in certain times and
places, animal and human diseases were investigated together.
By studying the history of research into human and animal disease, in Western Europe
and North America, from 1850 to the present day, our programme of research
will examine the social, political, economic and scientific factors that
both impeded - and in some cases, enabled - a One Health approach. It is
hoped that the findings will help the One Health initiative's efforts to
forge closer collaborations between physicians, veterinarians and other
health professionals, while also providing new insights into the history of
human and animal health.”
Information provided October 19, 2010 by:
Abigail Woods, MA, MSc, VetMB, PhD, MRCVS
Senior lecturer in the history of medicine
Centre for the History of Science, Technology and Medicine
Imperial College London
South Kensington Campus
London SW7 2AZ (UK)
E-mail inquiries: email@example.com
|One Health in ACTION – 2nd Article in Tuberculosis Series - Human tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis in the United States, Latin America and the Caribbean - Monday, October 18, 2010
One Health in ACTION – 2nd Article in Tuberculosis Series
Human tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis in the United States, Latin America and the Caribbean
By de Kantor I N, LoBue P A, Thoen C O. [Dr. Isabel de Kantor is a PhD; Dr. Philip LoBue is a physician; and Dr. Charles Thoen is a veterinarian]
[Serialised article. Tuberculosis: a re-emerging disease in animals and humans. Number 3 in the series]
or directly to the pdf http://docstore.ingenta.com/cgi-bin/ds_deliver/1/u/d/ISIS/59172528.1/iuatld/ijtld/2010/00000014/00000011/art00003/B18398FF23C661B012873887676840D4A8D74F1D28.pdf?link=http://www.ingentaconnect.com/error/delivery&format=pdf
Clare Pierard | Managing Editor
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (IJTLD)
International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
68, boulevard Saint-Michel | 75006 Paris | France
Tel: (+33) 1 44 32 03 60 | Fax: (+33) 1 43 29 90 83
CPierard@theunion.org | firstname.lastname@example.org | www.theunion.org
|One Health in ACTION: Significant New One Health Oriented “Infection, Ecology and Epidemiology Network (IEE)” Established in Sweden - 2010 - Wednesday, October 13, 2010
One Health in ACTION:
Significant New One Health Oriented “Infection, Ecology and Epidemiology Network (IEE)” Established in Sweden
Read More on Home page: www.infee.se
“Combating and controlling zoonotic infections effectively, requires an approach where researchers use the “One World – One Health” perspective. The purpose of the IEE network is to stimulate interdisciplinary projects resulting in increased knowledge of emergence, spread and effects of infectious disease on human, domestic animals and wildlife. … .”
Infection, Ecology and Epidemiology, IEE network is a Swedish national collaboration for researchers with interest in zoonotic infections. As a consequence, some of the information on this website can only be found in Swedish. We apologise for any inconvenience and kindly ask you to contact IEE if you have questions and comments.
IEE is an integration concept including several universities and governmental organizations that wish to contribute to a sustainable intellectual platform where veterinarians, physicians, molecular biologists, ecologists and environmental chemists with an interest in zoonotic infections can interact and create synergies. The rationale is not to build up new laboratory facilities, but to use and collaborate within already established research structures.
National Veterinary Institute, SVA
Swedish Agricultural University, SLU
Linnaeus University, Kalmar
Physical location: SVA, Ulls väg 2A, 751 89 Uppsala, Sweden
Project Leader: Björn Olsen, MD, PhD professor in infectious disease at Uppsala University and senior physician at Uppsala Academic Hospital. Dr. Olsen is an ornithologist with an interest in the consequences of interactions between humans, domestic animals and wildlife.
Project coordinator: Lovisa Svensson, PhD, SVA/Uppsala University
Communication officer webb: Eva Haxton, MSci, Uppsala Academic Hospital
Information Provided by:
Lovisa Svensson, PhD
Infection Ecology and Epidemiology network
Footnote: The One Health Initiative website team of Laura H. Kahn, MD, MPH, MPP, Bruce Kaplan, DVM, Thomas P. Monath, MD, and Jack Woodall, PhD strongly supports this new and exciting One Health program. Our team works with IEE both collaboratively and via reciprocal website links: please see http://www.infee.se/infee/node/6 and One Health Initiative website NEWS Statistics http://www.onehealthinitiative.com/news.php posted on the News page (scroll down).
|One Health - 2010 AAVLD/USAHA Plenary Sessions - Nov 13 & 15 - Monday, October 11, 2010
2nd Reminder: IMPORTANT ONE HEALTH MEETING SESSIONS ANNOUNCED August 7, 2010:
November 11-17, 2010
United States Animal Health Association (USAHA)
114th Annual Meeting - Minneapolis, Minnesota (USA)
American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians (AAVLD)
53rd Annual Conference
For more information on AAVLD programs, please go to www.aavld.org
One Health - 2010 AAVLD/USAHA Plenary Sessions
Saturday, 13 Nov 2010
AAVLD Plenary Session – 7:50 – 11:30 a.m.
One Health: Opportunities for Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratories
7:50 a.m. Welcome – Craig Carter, DVM, PhD, AAVLD President-Elect
8:00 Keynote-- Human-Animal Medicine Title: How Do Laboratories Fit Into the Picture?
- Peter Rabinowitz, MD, MPH
8:30 NBAF And Its Role In the Growing One Health Initiative
– Cyril Gay, DVM, PhD
9:00 What are the Challenges and Pitfalls to my Laboratory Participating in One Health?
– Bruce Akey, MS, DVM
10:00 Valuing One Health: Opportunities and Challenges for Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratories
– Tammy Beckham, DVM, PhD
10:30 When/Where/How Veterinarians Can Build Bridges Between the Diagnostic Laboratory and the Local Health Community –
-Tanya Graham, DVM, DAVCP
11:00 a.m. Walk the Talk: The Center for Excellence of Emerging & Zoonotic Animal Diseases (CEEZAD) and One Health –
-Juergen Richt, DVM, PhD
Monday, 15 Nov 2010
USAHA/AAVLD Joint Plenary Session – 7:50 – 12:00 a.m.
One Health: One Way Street Or Are There Opportunities for Animal Agriculture?
7:50 a.m. Welcome – Steve Halstead, DVM, MS USAHA President-Elect; Lonnie King, DVM, MS, MPA Moderator
8:00 Keynote--One Medicine: Its All Herd Health
– Lisa A. Conti, DVM, MPH
8:30 Emerging Infectious Diseases: The Case for Integrating
Science, Medicine and Public Health
- Gary Simpson, MD, PhD, MPH
9:00 Producer perspective on One Health: What are the implications of being a One Health Partner
- Mark Engle. DVM, MS
10:00 One Health and the Environment: Improving Health in a Wicked World
- Katie Pelican, DVM, PhD
10:30 Global prospective of One Health: Are we missing opportunities?
- Mo Salman, DVM, MPVM, PhD
11:00 Emerging Microbial Threats: Challenges and Opportunities at the Human-Animal-Ecosystem Interface
-James M. Hughes, MD
11:30 One Health Discussion and Q&A Panel
Dr. Craig N. Carter
Director & Professor, Epidemiology
Livestock Disease Diagnostic Center
Department of Veterinary Science
Colleges of Agriculture & Public Health
University of Kentucky
1490 Bull Lea Rd.
Lexington, KY 40511
|Press Release (received October 6, 2010): Agricultural Science and Politics - Thursday, October 07, 2010
Press Release (received October 6, 2010):
Agricultural Science and Politics
October 5, 2010—Dr. Juergen A. Richt [DVM, PhD], Kansas State University Regents Distinguished Professor and Director of CEEZAD, (Center of Excellence for Emerging and Zoonotic Animal Diseases), speaking at the Farm Foundation Conference on September 24, 2010, “Zoonoses: Understanding the Animal Agriculture and Human Health Connection” in Washington, DC, set out the links between politics, One Health and communication. He emphasized that “the search for the public health of the nation is a political pursuit, because we are competing with other policy objectives, other priorities and many special interests.” “We must affirm,” he said, “the relevance of politics in a democratic society and communicate with politicians in their hopes, agendas and concerns, even if their primary concern appears at times to be re-elected. I believe that it is our task to convince the politicians that if they want to be re-elected they need to support us in our pursuit to improve public health.”
In striving to achieve this goal of sound public health, Dr. Richt noted that “it is essential to unite human and veterinary medicine with ecological health, in a commitment to ‘One Health—One Medicine—One Environment.’ If we try to protect people without protecting animals and the environment, the result will be that people, animals and the environment will all suffer needlessly. Therefore, we need to support the One Health Initiative that seeks to unify human and veterinary medicine.” However, he noted that even with an awareness of the importance of politics and One Health, it was essential “to learn to be effective communicators to achieve our policy objectives.”
Intriguingly, Dr. Richt suggested that “the closer you get to a brick wall, the better you can see the door in that wall. The brick wall is our own limitations; and the door in that brick wall is not always open, because it is a swinging door that is moving us back and forth from scientific issues to political issues. We all need to take the opportunity to move through that swinging door at the appropriate time on the appropriate issues.”
Dr. Richt concluded that, “whether our primary concern is scientific, agricultural, veterinary medicine, public health, ecohealth or political, we can all learn to communicate effectively, with both our friends and those who think they are our enemies. If we fail to communicate, we fail as scientists.”
For further information, please contact Karinne Cortes email@example.com or 785-532-2793
|Breast Cancer Awareness Month This October - One Health in ACTION: Human Breast Cancer Comparative Medicine Research Advances at MD Anderson Cancer Center - Wednesday, October 06, 2010
Breast Cancer Awareness Month This October
This previous News item is how “One Health” comparative medicine has advanced critical scientific knowledge about Breast Cancer: think of what full One Health implementation and institutionalization could achieve!
One Health in ACTION: Human Breast Cancer Comparative Medicine Research Advances at MD Anderson Cancer Center - Friday, September 17, 2010
One Health in ACTION: Human Breast Cancer Comparative Medicine Research Advances at MD Anderson Cancer Center
Physicians, PhDs, and Veterinarians working collaboratively and synergistically
Department of Veterinary Sciences, Michale E. Keeling Center for Comparative Medicine and Research, The University of Texas
Provided September 13, 2010 by:
Christian R. Abee, DVM, MS, DACLAM
Doctor R. Lee Clark Professor and Chair
Department of Veterinary Sciences
Director, Michale E. Keeling Center for Comparative Medicine and Research
University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center
Bastrop, TX 78602
Telephone: (512) 321-3991 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting (512) 321-3991 end_of_the_skype_highlighting
Research at the Keeling Center has led to discovery of new breast cancer therapeutic monoclonal antibodies, and the development of early breast cancer tests based on the antibodies. These antibodies were discovered in the laboratory of Keeling Center investigator Dr. Feng Wang-Johanning [MD, PhD] and her Keeling Center collaborator, Dr. Gary Johanning [PhD]. The monoclonal antibodies are directed against an ancient retrovirus that originated outside the human body as a remnant of an exogenous retrovirus, and subsequently became incorporated into the genome of primates millions of years ago. This retrovirus, termed human endogenous retrovirus (HERV), currently resides in the genome of all humans.
Dr. Wang-Johanning and Dr. Johanning are focusing their studies on one highly active subgroup of HERV, HERV type K. HERV-K is not usually expressed in normal, non-cancer cells, but they found that its expression re-emerges in human breast cancer, making it a good target for antibody therapy. Dr. Wang-Johanning’s major research discovery to date is that monoclonal and single chain antibodies against HERV-K are effective in inhibiting breast cancer cell proliferation and inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, both in vitro and in vivo. Pivotal studies in immunodeficient mice demonstrated that tumor sizes were significantly reduced, and onset of tumorigenesis was significantly delayed, in antibody-treated mice bearing breast tumors.
HERV-K is thus a novel antigen target for breast cancer, and Dr. Wang-Johanning’s pre-clinical studies provide compelling evidence that antibodies to HERV-K have the potential to be effective therapeutic agents for treating breast cancer. She is currently developing humanized and human antibodies for clinical trials, aimed at translating her laboratory results to breast cancer patients. Drs. Wang-Johanning and Johanning are hopeful that this antibody will rival the effectiveness of the well-known breast cancer therapeutic antibody Herceptin. There is reason for their optimism, because while Herceptin is effective against only 25-30 percent of breast cancers, anti-HERV-K antibodies have the potential to be effective against almost all human breast cancers.
The research of Dr. Wang-Johanning and collaborators has just taken an exciting turn. They are taking advantage of the presence of HERV-K in breast cancer to develop early breast cancer tests. These tests are based on detection of anti-HERV-K serum antibodies and viral RNA, and will be analogous to the PSA test that is widely used for prostate cancer screening. There is a need for these tests, because currently there are no sensitive and specific serum tests for breast cancer.
These discoveries would not have been possible without “One Health” collaboration between Dr. Wang-Johanning’s group and investigators at the main M. D. Anderson Cancer Center campus in Houston. Kelly Hunt, MD, breast cancer surgeon, provided breast cancer serum and tumor tissues for Dr. Wang-Johanning’s projects. In addition, Stephan Ambs, PhD, National Cancer Institute, is collaborating with Dr. Wang-Johanning’s laboratory to assess the clinical significance of elevated HERV-K in breast cancer. Bruce Bernacky, DVM at the Keeling Center, will also play a prominent role in upcoming studies with Dr. Wang-Johanning because he will provide access to primates for testing her antibodies prior to human clinical trials.
Note: Please see the current issue of the Institute of Laboratory Animal Research (ILAR) Journal which contains “One Health: The Intersection of Humans, Animals and the Environment – Scientific Editor: James G. Fox, DVM, MS [2010 Volume 51, Number 3]
ILAR Journal and ILAR e-Journal
The National Academies
500 Fifth Street, NW
Washington, DC 20001
202-334-2590 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting 202-334-2590 end_of_the_skype_highlighting
Cameron Fletcher, Managing Editor firstname.lastname@example.org”
|One Health Initiative Symposium: Vaccination of Animals for Prevention and Control of Zoonotic Diseases - November 3-7, 2010 - Atlanta, GA (USA) - Tuesday, October 05, 2010
2nd REMINDER: A Highly Significant …
One Health Initiative Symposium: Vaccination of Animals for Prevention and Control of Zoonotic Diseases
American Society for Tropical Medicine and Hygiene – 59th Annual Meeting - www.astmh.org
November 3-7, 2010
Marriott Atlanta Marquis Hotel
Atlanta, Georgia (USA)
A symposium organized jointly by members of the ASTMH and the Society for Tropical Veterinary Medicine (STVM) http://www.soctropvetmed.org/ deals with the broad subject of One Health.
Marriott – Room A704, Thursday, November 4, 2010, 3:45 p.m. – 5:30 p.m.
The Symposium focuses on vaccines, considered the most cost effective means of disease prevention. The role of vaccines in preventing the spread of disease from animals to humans will be explored. Speakers will address exampls where vaccination in animal species (livestock, poultry and wildlife) for zoonotic disease agents is used or could be used in order to reduce the risk of human disease.
Specific examples are drawn from important human diseases cause by viral agents of animals. Speakers will address the potential for additional impact on disease risk reduction for selected vaccine-preventable diseases as well as opportunities for vaccine interventions.
· Demonstrate concrete cases where the vaccination of wildlife, livestock and poultry is being used to reduce human disease.
· Provide a One Health forum for discussing the integration of approaches that can reduce disease risk in animals and people.
Thomas P. Monath, MD, Chair – Partner, Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers and member, One Health Initiative Website team
Bob H. Bokma, DVM, Co-Chair – United States Department of Agriculture-Animal Plant Health Inspection Service (USDA-APHIS)
Clarence J. Peters, MD – University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX (USA)
“Rift Valley fever: prevention of human disease outbreaks by vaccination of livestock”
Thomas Geisbert, PhD - University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX (USA)
“Progress in the development of vaccines against Ebola hemorrhagic fever”
Thomas E. Walton, DVM, PhD - USDA (retired), Fort Collins, CO (USA)
“Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis attenuated vaccine strain TC-83: successful application of an IND human vaccine to equines for control of major northern hemispheric epizootic and epidemic, 1969-1972.”
E. Paul H. Gibbs, BVSc, PhD - University of Florida, Gainesville, Fl (USA)
“The global eradication of rinderpest and its significance for “One World, One Health”.
Note: There will also be a One Health Initiative poster presentation by Jack Woodall, PhD, co-founder and associate editor of ProMED-mail.
Friday, November 5, 2010 – Noon to 1:30 pm – Poster Session B
|Maasai Vets [veterinarians] Carry Out Disease Surveillance of 86,000 Animals With Google Mobile Phones - Friday, October 01, 2010
Maasai Vets [veterinarians] Carry Out Disease Surveillance of 86,000 Animals With Google Mobile Phones
05 August 2010
"Mobile phones enable vets to upload information about diseases and vaccinations (shown by the coloured markers) to a project website. Credit: EpiCollect
Maasai vets in East Africa are using mobile phones to monitor diseases including anthrax and rabies as part of a partnership involving London-based academics. The Google mobile phones are helping to record how diseases are spreading in order to bolster preventative action, including vaccination campaigns. The new project in rural Kenya is led by the charity Vetaid and is backed by Google UK, which has donated 23 G1 Android devices to the surveillance effort. Data relating to more than 86,000 animals from 1,600 farms has already been logged via the mobile phones in the last month." ...
READ MORE about this extraordinary story:
|Why the environment and environmental change matter to One Health - Thursday, September 23, 2010
Why the environment and environmental change matter to One Health
Submitted By: Meredith A. Barrett Meredith.email@example.com, Aaron H. Stoertz, Timothy A. Bouley
Human medicine and veterinary medicine demonstrate a long history of collaboration dating back to the 19th century. Today, the One Health movement maintains this tradition, yet also increasingly incorporates environmental, public health, social science, public policy, and other non-medical scientific perspectives to address global health challenges. Despite this shift towards multidisciplinarity, we feel that the emphasis on the environmental influences on human and animal health are not yet sufficiently represented in the movement. Though environmental issues are indeed finding a more prominent place in the One Health dialogue, they remain more on the fringes, likely as a result of the complexity in linking environmental changes to health. The following examples highlight the importance of the environment to One Health and illustrate how central One Health is and will be to global environmental change.
It is essential to consider the environment in order to achieve optimal health for people and animals. In fact, addressing environmental factors affecting health is essentially a public health-oriented disease prevention strategy. Here are a few reasons why:
· 24% of the global burden of disease originate from environmental causes ( World Health Organization)
· The potential health impacts of climate change will be broad and significant, including: heat and cold effects; wind, storms and floods; drought, nutrition and food security; food safety and disease; water and disease; air quality and disease; allergens and disease; vector and rodent-borne disease; occupational health; and UV radiation (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change)
· More specifically, changes in temperature, precipitation and seasonality will influence infectious disease emergence, incidence and spread (e.g., dengue, malaria and cholera)
· Other environmental drivers, such as land use changes and deforestation, also contribute to the loss of biodiversity and the spread of infectious diseases, as has been seen with malaria and Lyme disease
· Human and animal well-being relies upon ecosystem services provided by the environment. Ecosystem services include supporting services (nutrient cycling, soil formation, primary production), regulating services (climate and flood regulation, disease buffering, water purification), provisioning services (food, water, fuel) and cultural services (aesthetic, spiritual, mental health) that make the persistence of human and animal life possible. (See Figure 1 from the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment)
· Many of these ecosystem services rely upon the maintenance of biodiversity (including species, ecosystems, populations and genes), which makes possible the growth of food, healthy diets, the development of new medicines, and the regulation of the emergence of infectious diseases
Despite the importance of the environment to the preservation of human and animal well-being, we face increasing challenges to the maintenance of healthy ecosystems. Rapidly shifting human pressures and global environmental change—including examples such as climate change, land use change, desertification and biodiversity loss—could severely compromise the future well-being of humans and animals. The global human population is estimated to reach 7 billion within the next few years and will increase its need for land, food and energy. However, currently 60% of the essential ecosystem services of the planet are degraded or are under increasing threat. This loss, combined with the potential increased frequency of heat waves, storm events, and droughts as a result of climate change, have the potential to contribute to global crop failures, soil erosion and, ultimately, injuries, malnutrition and other negative health outcomes.
Human, animal and ecosystem health are inextricably connected. We see the One Health approach as an essential perspective to approaching these challenges. Collaboration among human health, animal health, public health and environmental science professionals will be necessary to address challenges, design collaborative solutions and create co-beneficial health and environmental policies for our rapidly changing world. The One Health Initiative can lead the way in further incorporating environmental programming into their mission and bringing more environmental professionals into the One Health movement.
The One Health Initiative www.onehealthinitiative.com website team is interested in increasing the presence of environmental professionals in One Health. We have begun to solicit new articles with an environmental focus for the One Health Newsletter http://www.onehealthinitiative.com/newsletter.php. If you work in health and the environment, please send us an email to see if you might be able to contribute an article to the One Health Initiative website firstname.lastname@example.org and/or the quarterly newsletter c/o Editor Mary_Echols2@doh.state.fl.us. Help us spread knowledge about these ecosystem connections.
Figure 1. Harmful effects of ecosystem change on human health (from the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment “Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Health Synthesis;”http://www.millenniumassessment.org/documents/document.357.aspx.pdf
[Permission granted to reproduce World Health Organization item/s September 23, 2010 by WHO, Dolores Campanario, Geneva,Switzerland.]
To learn more, the following websites hold a wealth of information:
· Millennium Ecosystem Assessment
· Center for Global Health and the Environment
· Center for Sustainability and the Global Environment
· The World Health Organization
o Climate Change and Human Health studies: http://www.who.int/globalchange/en/
o Health and Environment Linkages project : http://www.who.int/heli/en/
o Environmental burden of disease: http://www.who.int/quantifying_ehimpacts/publications/preventingdisease/en/index.html
· Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Fourth Assessment Report, 2007, Human Health Chapter
· IUCN Ecosystems and Human Wellbeing
· UNEP and WHO’s Libreville Declaration on Health and Environment collaboration
· Cooperation on Health and Biodiversity (COHAB)
· Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)
· Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES)
Meredith A. Barrett is a PhD candidate in the University Program in Ecology at the Nicholas School of Environment at Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (USA). She is working to identify health consequences of human development on lemur populations in Madagascar. Ms. Barrett, along with Aaron Stoertz, coordinate the Global Health Working Group, a student-run interdisciplinary forum at Duke University dedicated to educating students about global health issues.
Aaron Stoertz is pursuing his MSc in Global health at Duke Global Health Institute and has a certificate in epidemiology from the University of North Carolina’s Gillings School of Global Public Health. Mr. Stoertz’s current focus is human resources for health and health are distribution in underprivileged communities and nations.
Timothy Bouley is currently studying global health adaptation to climate change while pursuing degrees in medicine at Duke University and environmental change at Oxford University, United Kingdom.
|CAPRINE ARTHRITIS/ENCEPHALITIS - PHILIPPINES: COMPARATIVE MEDICINE ASPECTS - ProMED Post - Tuesday, September 21, 2010
CAPRINE ARTHRITIS/ENCEPHALITIS - PHILIPPINES: COMPARATIVE MEDICINE ASPECTS
Please see a notable One Health ProMED-mail posting on One Health Initiative Website ProMED Page - Tuesday, September 21, 2010.