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Sitting Down With… [Dr.] Richard M. Linnehan, Veterinarian/Astronaut, Houston, USA - The Pathologist, June 2018 ["...how important the concept of ONE HEALTH is..."
The Pathologist
Sunday, July 08, 2018.

https://thepathologist.com/fileadmin/_processed_/0/a/csm_TP_Issue_0618cover_8d5c769654.png

 

About this Article, Published in Issue #0618 SEE:  https://thepathologist.com/issues/0618/the-astropathologist/

The Pathologist’s June issue covers what we gain from death! We speak to a team of experts behind human decomposition facilities to dig into how the dead can breathe life into research and provide vital forensic clues. We also delve into measuring the risk of Alzheimer’s disease, detecting malaria in mosquitoes with NIRS, how AI can aid healthcare, using methylation biomarkers to assist prognosis, the lab of the future, and much more. Plus, we sit down with astronaut and veterinary pathologist Richard M. Linnehan to discuss his career on and off the planet.

Sitting Down With… [Dr.] Richard M. Linnehan, Veterinarian/Astronaut, Houston, USA

“... When you look down at our planet from space, you realize that everything that seems so big and infinite… isn’t. It made me realize just how important the concept of “One Health” is. For instance, I’m a veterinarian, so I do comparative pathology – avian, reptile, amphibian, mammalian, human, even invertebrate – but most healthcare professionals focus only on humans. “One Health” brings us back to the idea that it’s all connected. Disease entities don’t stick to a single organism or environment; they move between them. The planet is smaller than we think. It’s a closed ecosystem, and everything that lives will eventually, in some way, affect everything else. ...”

June 2018

 

What initially prompted you to study veterinary pathology?

I was always interested in disease processes and epidemiology, but what sparked my interest in veterinary medicine was working for a local equine and large animal veterinarian in high school. I thought it was really cool that a human could actually help animals that big. I was interested in human medicine, too, but I was so intrigued by the veterinary side – especially exotic animals – that I decided to take that route.

I did my veterinary residency in comparative pathology and exotic animal medicine, and then did research and clinical work with zoo animals for several years. My main interest, even then, was in marine mammals and related ecosystems. I met the head of the US Navy’s marine mammal program while in veterinary school, and I wanted to be the program’s main veterinarian. Even though I had stayed in touch and geared my residency and extracurricular activities toward marine mammal work, I couldn’t believe it when I got the job!

The program involved training teams of sea lions and dolphins to perform underwater searches – they were much better than human divers. The animals were never in danger, of course; we just relied on them to detect and report potential hazards. In fact, they were better taken care of medically and nutritionally than most people! We also did some pretty cool research – studies on reproduction, longevity, nutrition, and many other things.

How did that lead to a career as an astronaut?

Before I applied to veterinary school, the only other thing I had ever wanted to be was a fighter pilot. I was accepted into the Air Force and veterinary school at the same time, and my advisor convinced me to choose the latter. During my studies, I used to watch the shuttle launches and ask myself, “How can I still fly?” And I figured that, if the space program was sending up mission specialists, doctors, physicists, and geologists, they’d need a veterinarian as well.

I interviewed with them (for which I can thank my experience as a deploying military marine mammal veterinarian) and, in 1992, they called me to say, “Would you like to be an astronaut?” Well – of course I would!

When you look down at our planet from space, you realize that everything that seems so big and infinite… isn’t. It made me realize just how important the concept of “One Health” is. For instance, I’m a veterinarian, so I do comparative pathology – avian, reptile, amphibian, mammalian, human, even invertebrate – but most healthcare professionals focus only on humans. “One Health” brings us back to the idea that it’s all connected. Disease entities don’t stick to a single organism or environment; they move between them. The planet is smaller than we think. It’s a closed ecosystem, and everything that lives will eventually, in some way, affect everything else.

What was your role on your missions?

My first mission, STS-78, was a life and microgravity sciences mission in the Spacelab where we looked at how various biological processes work in space. We looked at the differences in how biological systems function in zero or microgravity versus normal gravity. Everything that has ever lived on Earth has evolved in a 1 G gravity field, so when you take that away, how do things respond?

The second flight – STS-90, or Neurolab – was much more involved. We were looking at nervous system disturbances brought on by spaceflight. We had a vast array of animals – crickets, rodents, even oyster toadfish. Fish are kind of wild because their neutral buoyancy means that they live in a pseudo-microgravity environment – but they rely on gravity to tell them up from down. So how do they maintain buoyancy and navigation in space?

We also liked to joke that we had four big primates on board on whom we performed most of our experiments – us. I was pleased to have the opportunity to use my veterinary degree and pathology training to help the future survival of humanity. If we can’t figure out how to keep humans healthy and strong in space, then we’re not going to go. We won’t travel long distances to other planets, because by the time we get there, we’re going to be so unhealthy and so discombobulated that we won’t be able to function. I hope our operational studies will one day help humans take to the stars.

My final two missions were not life sciences-related, and allowed me to venture into the world of spacewalking. On STS-109, we rendezvoused with, repaired, and upgraded the Hubble Space Telescope. That was an awesome flight experience and a great mission. My last flight, STS-123, was to the International Space Station, where I and my spacewalk team helped build the space station. We installed the Japanese laboratory, called Kibo, and a giant robot called the Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator that moves around the station and replaces worn-out parts.

What do you think is the most underrepresented aspect of pathology?

I think it’s comparative pathology – the link between disease processes in humans, animals, and the environment. We haven’t thought about it as much as we should because we’re too focused on our own species, so we don’t always consider that the same organisms and errors cause problems to other species as well, even though the presentations may be different to our own. We must remember that it’s all interrelated.

Permission to reprint granted to the One Health Initiative website July 8, 2018 by:

Michael Schubert, Editor | Texere Publishing Limited, t: 01565 745 193 | www.thepathologist.com


June 8, 2018—American Public Health Association (APHA) Organizations’ letter to U.S. Congress Appropriations Committee leaders in support of strong investments in antimicrobial resistance in FY 2019 appropriations bills using ONE HEALTH APPROACH
Saturday, July 07, 2018.

June 8, 2018—American Public Health Association (APHA) Organizations’ letter to U.S. Congress Appropriations Committee leaders in support of strong investments in antimicrobial resistance in FY 2019 appropriations bills using ONE HEALTH APPROACH

  SEE: https://goo.gl/kaai5a

3rd paragraph,

“The report also highlights the need for continued and robust funding for AMR given that nationwide testing last year documented 221 cases of so-called “nightmare bacteria,” that can spread resistance to last-resort antibiotics. Robust, sustained investment in multi-agency One Health efforts is vital to combat AMR domestically and globally including prevention, antimicrobial stewardship, surveillance and data collection, research, and development of urgently needed new products including antimicrobial drugs, diagnostics, vaccines and alternative treatments.”

11th paragraph,

“Food and Drug Administration and US Department of Agriculture Experts agree that a One Health approach, including both human and animal health, is essential for combating antimicrobial resistance. We urge funding of $54 million for the Combating Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria initiative at FDA to support FDA’s efforts to address public health concerns associated with antimicrobial drug use in animals, and better protect antibiotic effectiveness for both human and animal populations. This funding is needed now more than ever, with estimates that antibiotic use in humans and livestock will rise by 50% before 2030. FDA would be able to better collaborate with consumers, producers, veterinarians, and other agencies to monitor AMR through the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) as well as other initiatives by the FDA Center for Veterinary Medicine to address AMR.”

Notably, see list of prominent organizational signatories:

Accelerate Diagnostics, Inc.

AdvaMedDx

Alliance for Aging Research

Alliance for the Prudent Use of Antibiotics

American Academy of Pediatrics

American Association of Avian Pathologists

American Association of Bovine Practitioners

American Public Health Association

American Society of Transplant Surgeons

American Society of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

American Thoracic Society

American Veterinary Medical Association

Antibiotic Resistance Action Center, the George Washington University

Antimicrobials Working Group (Amplyx Pharmaceuticals, Aridis Pharmaceuticals, Arsanis Inc., Cidara Therapeutics Inc., ContraFect Corporation, Iterum Therapeutics Ltd., Melinta Therapeutics Inc., Motif Bio plc, Nabriva Therapeutics US Inc., Paratek Pharmaceuticals Inc., SCYNEXIS Inc., Spero Therapeutics, Inc., T2 Biosystems Inc., Theravance Biopharma U.S. Inc., Viamet, Vical Incorporated, and Zavante Therapeutics Inc.)

Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology

Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges

Association of State and Territorial Health Officials

Becton Dickinson and Co. (BD)

bioMerieux

Biotechnology Innovation Organization (BIO)

Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy

Center for Foodborne Illness Research and Prevention

 

Clinician Champions in Comprehensive Antibiotic Stewardship

 

Consumer Federation of America

Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists

 

Da Volterra

 

Duke Center for Antimicrobial Stewardship and Infection Prevention

 

Emory Antibiotic Resistance Center

 

Food Animal Concerns Trust

GlaxoSmithKline

Global Health Council

Health Care Without Harm

HIV Medicine Association

Immune Deficiency Foundation

 

Infectious Diseases Society of America

 

Johns Hopkins Center for a Livable Future

 

Making-A-Difference in Infectious Diseases

 

March of Dimes

 

National Association of County and City Health Officials

National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners

 

NovaDigm Therapeutics, Inc.

Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society

Peggy Lillis Foundation

 

Sepsis Alliance

Society of Critical Care Medicine

 

Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists

Spero Therapeutics

 

The Fecal Transplant Foundation

 

The Gerontological Society of America

 

The Pew Charitable Trusts

 

The Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America

 

The Society of Critical Care Medicine

Treatment Action Group

 

Trust for America's Health

 


Guidelines for Inspection of Companion and Commercial Animal Establishments
Friday, July 06, 2018.

Guidelines for Inspection of Companion and Commercial Animal Establishments

 “Various establishments exist in which animals are held for a variety of reasons. Historically, the management and inspection of animals in commerce and in private keeping have involved a considerable degree of arbitrary evaluation based on the personal experience of the vendor, keeper, advisor, or inspector. Accordingly, relevant protocols and standards are subject to considerable variation. Relatedly, diversity of traded and privately kept species generates significant challenges for those responsible for facility management and inspection alike. Animal welfare and public health and safety are constant and major concerns that require objective methodologies to monitor and control. This report focuses on establishments concerned with the boarding, breeding, storage, vending or handover of animals intended for human “companions” or “pets”, and aims to provide universal objective information for essential husbandry, inspection protocols and an allied inspection assessment tool for scoring establishments.”

Citation: Warwick C, Jessop M, Arena P, Pilny A and Steedman C (2018) Guidelines for Inspection of Companion and Commercial Animal Establishments. Front. Vet. Sci. 5:151. doi: 10.3389/fvets.2018.00151 

Link: https://doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2018.00151 and https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fvets.2018.00151/full

NOTE: Also see ‘Health Initiative Targets Exotic Pet Keepers’ http://www.onehealthinitiative.com/news.php?query=Health+Initiative+Targets+Exotic+Pet+Keepers+

 


DUKE One Health Team News - Issue 4 July 1 2018
Sunday, July 01, 2018.

 

ISSUE 4 July 2018

 

 

Recent Publications

 

Using a One Health Approach, Duke Researchers and Collaborators in China Find Evidence for Cross-species Influenza A Transmission Within Swine Farms
By Laura Borkenhagen, MSc


In an effort to better understand the influenza A virus transmission between humans and pigs, Duke University researchers and collaborators from multiple organizations in China conducted a large prospective study of pigs, pig workers, and six pig farms. Their important work is one of the few to be conducted interdisciplinary way. It was recently published in the high impact journal Clinical Infectious Diseases.  
 

Read more

 

 

 

Duke One Health Mongolian Team Identifies Potential Risk Factors for Zoonotic Disease Transmission Among Horse and Camel Herder Households

By Lexi Sack, DVM


In this pilot study, One Health D43 team 2 researchers from Duke University and The Institute of Veterinary Medicine in Mongolia conducted a survey of 131 households to determine the risk factors for transmitting zoonotic disease in households caring for horses and camels. Public health concerns may arise from using dried manure for fuel and drinking unprocessed river water.  


Read more

 

 

 

Duke and University of Iowa Experts Point Out Novel Pathogen Threats Emerging from Chinese Swine Farms
By Jane Fieldhouse, MSc


In the high impact journal Lancet Infectious Diseases, Professor Gregory Gray from Duke University and Professor & former dean James Merchant from the University of Iowa College of Public Health commented upon emerging pathogens threats from China’s growing swine industry.  They argue that heightened biosafety and biosecurity measures are immediately needed to prevent future novel pathogen outbreaks.
 

Read more

 

 

Duke One Health Activities

 

Two Duke Global Health Institute Rising Second-Year Master’s Students Conduct Fieldwork Research in Borneo Island of Malaysia for 10 Weeks

 

Juliana Zemke is conducting a surveillance of arboviruses in Sarawak, Malaysia. Arbovirus surveillance is vastly under-resourced, relying heavily on passive surveillance systems in Malaysia. The current diagnostic methods for patients presenting with dengue-like infections may misconstrue cases of dengue, chikungunya, and Zika virus infections, given that all three arboviruses have similar clinical manifestations. In this pilot study, Juliana aims to gather evidence to determine the prevalence of dengue, chikungunya, and Zika viruses among patients with dengue-like infections at Sibu and Kapit hospitals. She also plans to validate the clinical value of the T-Cor 8 Real-Time PCR Thermocycler (Tetracore Inc., USA) in detecting these viruses.

 

 

 

Jessica Choi is conducting a field trail of new diagnostics help the local physicians and laboratorians in Kapit more rapidly diagnose a dangerous bacterial disease, melioidosis. The current diagnostics are limited by the time and inaccuracy. For melioidosis patients, the administration of antibiotics is critical as the bacteria causing melioidosis, Burkholderia pseudomallei, may lead to fatal conditions if left untreated. The rapid diagnostic tool developed by the University of Nevada team, which uses lateral flow immunoassay, may be a promising solution for the Kapit communities. This is the first time that this novel tool is being validated in a melioidosis-epidemic site. Jessica hopes that the new diagnostics will provide a better care for the affected individuals and that the Kapit medical team will build confidence when facing the future melioidosis patients. 

 


Survival - One Health, One Planet, One Future (Release expected Sept19 2018)
George R. Lueddeke, PhD
Sunday, July 01, 2018.

20% discount off with this flyer!

Survival

One Health, One Planet, One Future

By George R. Lueddeke, PhD

Currently expected released on 19 September, 2018

 


North Carolina researchers earn Global One Health Award
Today's Veterinary Business Magazine (press release) (blog)
Thursday, June 28, 2018.
 
North Carolina researchers earn Global One Health Award
The award, presented by the World Small Animal Veterinary Association's One Health Committee, went to Ed Breitschwerdt, DVM, DACVIM, of the ...

 


5th International One Health Congress – a reflection
BMC Blogs Network (blog)
Tuesday, June 26, 2018.

5th International One Health Congress – a reflection

One Health regards the health of humans, animals and the environment as being interconnected, so when we look at human health we must also ...

Superbugs: MEPs advocate further measures to curb use of antimicrobials [Using One Health approach]
The European Sting
Friday, June 22, 2018.
 
Superbugs: MEPs advocate further measures to curb use of antimicrobials
Diseases are transmitted from people to animals and vice versa, and that is why we support the holistic approach of the 'One Health' initiative” said ...

 


See the Gear CDC's Disease Detectives [epidemiologists] Use in the Field
U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
Monday, June 18, 2018.

CDC

See the Gear CDC's Disease Detectives [epidemiologists] Use in the Field


34th World Veterinary Association Congress 5-8th May 2018, Barcelona, Spain Short summary of WVA activities during WVC2018 [including reference to One Health]
Monday, June 18, 2018.

34th World Veterinary Association Congress 5-8th May 2018, Barcelona, Spain Short summary of WVA activities during WVC2018

The 34th World Veterinary Association Congress took place on 5th- 8th May 2018, in Barcelona, Spain, under the Honorary Presidency of the Spanish Royal Family. With participation of delegates from 67 countries, this new edition delivered an excellent scientific program covering different fields of veterinary medicine from innovation and research, veterinary public health to vast aspects of clinical practice.

 

The Opening Ceremony of the WVAC2018 was opened by the presidents of the College of Veterinarians of Barcelona, General Council of the Spanish Colleges of Veterinarians and the World Veterinary Association welcoming the delegates. The Opening Ceremony continued with presentations by the Secretary General of the Spanish Ministry of Agriculture and Food and the Minister of Health, Social Services and Equality, Mrs. Dolors Montserrat i Montserrat. Both highlighted the importance of the One Health concept and the major role of the veterinary profession for the Spanish and European society. Those topics were also highlighted by Vytenis Andriukaitis, the EU Commissioner for Health & Food Safety who also emphasized the importance of the profession in Europe for the wellbeing of society and welfare of animals and the need for collaboration with other health professionals. ...”

 

 

 

 


 
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