“... The concept of one health, which addresses health concerns at the human-animal-plant-environmental interface, also takes center stage in Antarctica. The impact of human presence is causing environmental disruptions that could pose new challenges to the continent's fragile ecosystem. These disruptions may allow diseases to pass to animals and vice versa. Recently (October 2023), the first case of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) was detected among the birds of the Antarctic region [5]. The World Health Organization (WHO) has raised concerns about the increasing presence of the H5N1 virus in mammals, emphasizing the potential for the virus to undergo adaptive changes that could increase its infectivity in humans. Human infrastructure also facilitates the introduction of invasive species, newer microbes into subglacial settings, and the use of anti-microbials and their impact on the delicate ecosystems of Antarctica.  ...”

SEE: Cureus | Public Health in Antarctica | Article!/