Institute of Medicine - One Health Study Potential Highly Significant:
For National and Global One Health Implementation and Institutionalization
Prepared by Laura H. Kahn, MD, MPH, MPP, Bruce Kaplan, DVM, Thomas P. Monath, MD and Jack Woodall, PhD - November 30, 2009
One Health Initiative http://www.onehealthinitiative.com Website Team
The National Academy of Sciences’ Board on Global Health of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) and the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research of the National Research Council (NRC) have announced their intention to conduct a study of the One Health Initiative in early 2010 pending acquiring needed funding estimated at approximately $1.3 million. On November 17, 2009, the newly formed One Health Commission (OHC), a national U.S. incorporated, non-profit organization of supportive entities—including the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), and others—provided a ‘summit’ meeting where the IOM announced its intent to conduct a study that will evaluate the efficacy of implementing and institutionalizing the One Health concept in the United States and hopefully worldwide.
According to the OHC press release, “the Institute of Medicine study will examine the interdependencies of human, animal and ecosystem health and assess the potential value to be gained through a collaborative approach towards improved health worldwide. The results of the study will be utilized to develop a strategic roadmap for public and private policies and initiatives that will be instrumental in shaping the implementation of the One Health vision [concept].”
The Institute of Medicine http://www.iom.edu/en/About-IOM.aspx is an independent, nonprofit organization that works outside of government to provide unbiased and authoritative advice to decision makers and the public.
The IOM is the health arm of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) and was established in 1970. NAS was chartered under President Abraham Lincoln in 1863. Nearly 150 years later, the NAS expanded into what is collectively known as the National Academies, now comprises the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, the National Research Council, and the IOM.
The mission of IOM is to serve as adviser to the nation to improve health. The IOM asks and answers the nation’s most pressing questions about health and health care. Its goal is to help those in government and the private sector make informed health decisions by providing evidence upon which they can rely. Each year, more than 2,000 individuals, members, and nonmembers volunteer their time, knowledge, and expertise to advance the nation’s health through the work of the IOM.
Many of the studies that the IOM undertakes begin as specific mandates from Congress; still others are requested by federal agencies and independent organizations. Expert, consensus committees are vital to the IOM advisory role. They also convene a series of forums, roundtables, and standing committees, as well as other activities, to facilitate discussion, discovery, and critical, cross-disciplinary thinking.
Harvey V. Fineberg, MD, PhD, is President of the Institute of Medicine (IOM). He served as Provost of Harvard University from 1997 to 2001, following thirteen years as Dean of the Harvard School of Public Health. He has devoted most of his academic career to the fields of health policy and medical decision making. His past research has focused on the process of policy development and implementation, assessment of medical technology, evaluation and use of vaccines, and dissemination of medical innovations.
Dr. Fineberg helped found and served as president of the Society for Medical Decision Making and also served as consultant to the World Health Organization. At the Institute of Medicine, he has chaired and served on a number of panels dealing with health policy issues, ranging from AIDS to new medical technology. He also served as a member of the Public Health Council of Massachusetts (1976-1979), as chairman of the Health Care Technology Study Section of the National Center for Health Services Research (1982-1985), and as president of the Association of Schools of Public Health (1995-1996).
Dr. Fineberg is co-author of the books Clinical Decision Analysis, Innovators in Physician Education, and The Swine Flu Affair, an analysis of the controversial federal immunization program against swine flu in 1976. He has co-edited several books on such diverse topics as AIDS prevention, vaccine safety, and understanding risk in society. He has also authored numerous articles published in professional journals. Dr. Fineberg is the recipient of several honorary degrees and the Joseph W. Mountin Prize from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control. He earned his bachelor's and doctoral degrees from Harvard University.
Patrick Kelley, MD, DrPH, joined the IOM in July 2003 as Director Board on Global Health and was later appointed the Director of the Board of African Science Academy Development. Dr. Kelly has published 60 scholarly papers, monographs, book chapters.
Dr. Kelley served in the U.S. Army for more than 23 years as a physician, residency director, epidemiologist, and program manager. In his last position with the Department of Defense, he founded and directed the presidentially-mandated Department of Defense Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System.
In this role, he managed approximately $42 million dollars of emerging infections surveillance, response, training, and capacity-building activities in partnership with numerous elements of the federal government and with health ministries in over 45 developing countries.
Dr. Kelley obtained his MD from the University of Virginia and his DrPH from the Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health.
The IOM's Board on Global Health is concerned with advancing the health of populations worldwide. This involves addressing developing country health issues, enhancing the United States role in global health, and addressing health issues that have implications for U.S. health policy. In 2009, the IOM's Board is scheduled to release a report that will press for a deeper commitment to global health by the U.S. and communicate specific conclusions and recommendations that would pertain to not only the government, but also to the private sector, academia, the public health and scientific research communities, the diplomatic and national security communities, foundations, and the media.
The National Research Council (NRC) http://sites.nationalacademies.org/NRC/index.htm functions under the auspices of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS), the National Academy of Engineering (NAE), and the Institute of Medicine (IOM). The NAS, NAE, IOM, and NRC are part of a private, nonprofit institution that provides science, technology and health policy advice under a congressional charter signed by President Abraham Lincoln that was originally granted to the NAS in 1863. Under this charter, the NRC was established in 1916, the NAE in 1964, and the IOM in 1970. The four organizations are collectively referred to as the National Academies.
The mission of the NRC is to improve government decision making and public policy, increase public education and understanding, and promote the acquisition and dissemination of knowledge in matters involving science, engineering, technology, and health. The institution takes this charge seriously and works to inform policies and actions that have the power to improve the lives of people in the U.S. and around the world.
The NRC is committed to providing elected leaders, policy makers, and the public with expert advice based on sound scientific evidence. The NRC does not receive direct federal appropriations for its work. Individual projects are funded by federal agencies, foundations, other governmental and private sources, and the institution’s endowment. The work is made possible by 6,000 of the world’s top scientists, engineers, and other professionals who volunteer their time without compensation to serve on committees and participate in activities. The NRC is administered jointly by the NAS, NAE, and the IOM through the NRC Governing Board.
The core services involve collecting, analyzing, and sharing information and knowledge. The independence of the institution, combined with its unique ability to convene experts, allows it to be responsive to a host of requests.
The Institute for Laboratory Animal Research (ILAR) http://www.national-academies.org/ilar, founded in 1952, is a component of the National Research Council's Division on Earth and Life Studies. It serves as a coordinating agency and a national and international resource for compiling and disseminating information on laboratory animals, promoting education, planning and conducting conferences and symposia, surveying existing and required facilities and resources, upgrading laboratory animal resources, and promoting high-quality, humane care of laboratory animals. ILAR is guided by a 15-member Council, made up of experts in laboratory animal medicine, zoology, genetics, and related biomedical sciences.
The Kahn-Kaplan-Monath-Woodall One Health team strongly supports and endorses prospects for an IOM-NRC “One Health” study.