One Health Volume 7, June 2019, 100086 A one health perspective on dairy production and dairy food safety https://doi.org/10.1016/j.onehlt.2019.100086 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352771418300077?fbclid=IwAR3pTS3Lw5HvqbUN2W6MUiHbwmYDlMhOLLo2DZ8XT_gsQlQtVRvQNSPy988#bb0140 Highlights Historical overview of the origins of One Health and dairy food safety Current dairy food safety standards and best practices Antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance in mastitis pathogens New areas of research in alternative to antibiotics Framework for Dairy Production best practices Abstract As the global population approaches 9.7 billion inhabitants by the year 2050, humanity faces enormous challenges to feed, house, and provide basic living requirements for the growing population while preserving the health of wildlife and the ecosystem. Dairy source foods play an important part in providing nutrient and energy dense sources of calories and establishing Bifidobacterium as a keystone species in the gut for positive health outcomes in infants and children. In developed countries, dairy products have a high food safety record when pasteurized and properly processed. However, when milk is consumed unpasteurized, as often occurs in developing countries where regulation and oversight of the dairy industry is lacking, dairy can serve as a vector for zoonotic transmission of disease and can contain adulterants such as antibiotic residues. Here we provide an overview for the importance of dairy source foods for nutrition and with a One Health perspective and discuss the historical events that have resulted in a high standard of dairy food safety in the United States. This review article covers the Origins of One Health, the role of milk in transmission of disease, management practices and regulations to ensure safe dairy products reach consumers, current challenges facing the dairy industry and impacts on public health, and how these standards can be employed in low and middle income countries to improve public health, nutrition and economic benefits to farmers.