Environmental levels of the antiviral Oseltamivir induce development of resistance mutation H274Y in influenza A/H1N1 virus in mallards   Josef D. Järhult 1, Shaman Muradrasoli 2, John Wahlgren 3, Hanna Söderström 4, Goran Orozovic 5, Gunnar Gunnarsson 5,6, Caroline Bröjer 7,8, Neus Latorre-Margalef5, Jerker Fick 4, Roman Grabic 4,9, Johan Lennerstrand 10, Jonas Waldenström 5, Åke Lundkvist 3, Björn Olsen 1,5   PLoS ONE, Monday 12 September 2011 – OPEN ACCESS   Abstract   “Oseltamivir (Tamiflu®) is the most widely used drug against influenza infections and is extensively stockpiled worldwide as part of pandemic preparedness plans. However, resistance is a growing problem and in 2008–2009, seasonal human influenza A/H1N1 virus strains in most parts of the world carried the mutation H274Y in the neuraminidase gene which causes resistance to the drug. The active metabolite of oseltamivir, oseltamivir carboxylate (OC), is poorly degraded in sewage treatment plants and surface water and has been detected in aquatic environments where the natural influenza reservoir, dabbling ducks, can be exposed to the substance. … “   Please read more or click on attachment.