PLoS ONE | www.plosone.org 1 February 2012 | Volume 7 | Issue 2 | e27918 Likelihood of Henipavirus Entering the United Kingdom Emma L. Snary1*, Vick Ramnial1, Andrew C. Breed1, Ben Stephenson1, Hume E. Field2, Anthony R., Fooks3,4 1 Centre for Epidemiology and Risk Analysis, Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency, Addlestone, Surrey, United Kingdom, 2 Queensland Centre for Emerging Infectious Diseases, Biosecurity Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, 3 Wildlife Zoonoses and Vector-borne Diseases Research Group, Department of Virology, Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency, Addlestone, Surrey, United Kingdom, 4 National Consortium for Zoonosis Research, University of Liverpool, Leahurst, Chester High Road, Neston, United Kingdom Abstract The genus Henipavirus includes Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV), for which fruit bats (particularly those of the genus Pteropus) are considered to be the wildlife reservoir. The recognition of henipaviruses occurring across a wider geographic and host range suggests the possibility of the virus entering the United Kingdom (UK). To estimate the likelihood of henipaviruses entering the UK, a qualitative release assessment was undertaken. To facilitate the release assessment, the world was divided into four zones according to location of outbreaks of henipaviruses, isolation of henipaviruses, proximity to other countries where incidents of henipaviruses have occurred and the distribution of Pteropus spp. fruit bats. From this release assessment, the key findings are that the importation of fruit from Zone 1 and 2 and bat bushmeat from Zone 1 each have a Low annual probability of release of henipaviruses into the UK. Similarly, the importation of bat meat from Zone 2, horses and companion animals from Zone 1 and people travelling from Zone 1 and entering the UK was estimated to pose a Very Low probability of release. The annual probability of release for all other release routes was assessed to be Negligible. It is recommended that the release assessment be periodically re-assessed to reflect changes in knowledge and circumstances over time.