One Health Publications
United Nations (UN) meeting calls for more action, less talk, on antimicrobial resistance
April 30, 2021
Filed Under: Antimicrobial Stewardship
Apr 29, 2021
“… “It will happen again…so we need to dramatically strengthen pandemic preparedness, and we need to do so together, across sectors, and as a global community,” said Henrietta Fore, executive director of UNICEF. “This means building political will towards a One Health approach, underpinned by policies and budgets that put preparedness first.”
The One Health concept views the health of humans, animals, and the environment as intrinsically linked. Speakers throughout the day made it clear that any national strategies to combat AMR must address how antibiotics are used in human and veterinary medicine and in agriculture. …”View Publication
Striking the right balance … Recognizing that the health and well-being of humans, animals and the environment are intricately linked will help us shape a better tomorrow
April 27, 2021
Though the ‘One Health’ approach is considered crucial to address governance challenges of zoonotic diseases, its implementation in practice remains quite limited. It is time for international law to catch up with global reality. But global health scholars can neither simply focus on the health sector nor limit their work to scientific and technological improvement. All will have to realize that food, trade, human rights, humanitarian relief, and the environment are critically important in improving health and reducing health inequalities.”
The writer is a former Senior Scientist, Central Pollution Control Board. Views expressed are personalView Publication
Mechanical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 by house flies
April 26, 2021
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a recently emerged coronavirus that is the causative agent of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. COVID-19 in humans is characterized by a wide range of symptoms that range from asymptomatic to mild or severe illness including death. SARS-CoV-2 is highly contagious and is transmitted via the oral–nasal route through droplets and aerosols, or through contact with contaminated fomites. House flies are known to transmit bacterial, parasitic and viral diseases to humans and animals as mechanical vectors. Previous studies have shown that house flies can mechanically transmit coronaviruses, such as turkey coronavirus; however, the house fly’s role in SARS-CoV-2 transmission has not yet been explored. The goal of this work was to investigate the potential of house flies to mechanically transmit SARS-CoV-2. For this purpose, it was determined whether house flies can acquire SARS-CoV-2, harbor live virus and mechanically transmit the virus to naive substrates and surfaces.
Overall, these studies demonstrated that house flies are indeed capable of acquiring, harboring and transmitting SARS-CoV-2. However, the low level of infectious virus carried by flies limits their capability for SARS-CoV-2 transmission. …
In the present study, we determined that house flies could readily acquire and harbor SARS-CoV-2 from virus-spiked medium or virus-spiked milk. However, only viral RNA but no infectious virus was recovered from any environmental samples. These data suggest that flies most likely do not play a significant role in transmitting SARS-CoV-2 to humans and susceptible animals. However, the house fly’s ability to harbor SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA for extended periods might offer a potential for its use as a xenosurveillance vector for monitoring SARS-CoV-2 in communities, a technique which more traditionally has been used to survey blood-borne human pathogens by using hematophagous vectors [31, 32].
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Fights Hunger Despite the COVID-19 Pandemic
April 25, 2021
“…Preventing the next zoonotic pandemic: Around 60% of human infectious diseases have an animal origin, including the COVID-19 virus. The FAO’s plan to prevent the next zoonotic pandemic, therefore, entailed applying a One Health approach. This outlook recognizes the interconnectedness between animals, plants, humans and their environment to avoid future animal-origin pandemics. …”
Tackling pork tapeworm through a One Health approach
April 23, 2021
Pork tapeworm: a parasite that afflicts poor, marginalised farming and rural communities within 56 countries across the globe. Matt Dixon looks at how a One Health strategy could drive down infections and prevent a major cause of epilepsy in low and middle income countries, neurocysticercosis.
Matthew A. Dixon 23 Apr 2021
“… T. solium is a complex One Health problem that thrives on the close interaction between pigs, people, and places.
One Health has been defined as:
“The recognition that the health of humans, animals and ecosystems are interconnected”. …”View Publication
What Is Planetary Health?
April 23, 2021
“… Similarly, the idea of global health recognizes that the obstacles to health differ among populations, that socioeconomic factors are central determinants of health outcomes, and that wealth and health are connected. Finally, one health observes that the health of people, wild and domesticated animals, and natural living systems are also connected. …”View Publication
American University of the Caribbean School of Medicine to Host Disaster Medicine Virtual Conference
April 21, 2021
Posted Apr 21, 2021
“ … On Wednesday, April 28, AUC and the Caribbean Center for Disaster Medicine will host a 2021 International Conference featuring global disaster medicine thought leaders from across disciplines including medicine, nursing, public health, veterinary medicine, government and more. The focus of the day will be prevention, preparedness, response, mitigation and recovery from all-hazards events.
According to a 2020 report published by the US Agency for International Development and the Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters, disasters claimed approximately 1.23 million lives and affected a total of over 4 billion people between 2000 – 2019. Natural disasters affect everyone, from the elderly, families and children to pets and livestock. This year’s conference will highlight this concept of One Health, the idea that Zoonotic diseases such as COVID-19 are more likely to emerge as the link between humans and animals strengthens. …”View Publication
Anatomy Of A Spillover: We Failed To Stop SARS-CoV-2. How Do We Find Next ‘Big One’?
April 20, 2021
Heard on All Things Considered
Audio will be available later today.
“In movies such as Contagion, a pandemic begins in a flash. A deadly virus spills over from an animal, like a pig, into humans and then quickly triggers an outbreak.
But that’s not actually what happens, says Dr. Gregory Gray* at the Duke Global Health Institute. “It’s not like in the movies,” he says, “where this virus goes from a pig in Indonesia and causes a pandemic.” …
… Now, writing in the journal Viruses, Gray and his colleagues propose an alternative approach to hunting down new viruses, which, they believe, will have a better chance of stopping the next pandemic.
The approach takes into account the latest information about how human pathogens emerge from wildlife and how pandemics begin.
*Note: Gregory C. Gray MD, MPH, FIDSA is a member of the One Health Initiative team’s Advisory Board.
Statement on the seventh meeting of the International Health Regulations (2005) Emergency Committee regarding the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic
April 20, 2021
19 April 2021 Statement
The seventh meeting of the Emergency Committee convened by the WHO Director-General under the International Health Regulations (2005) (IHR) regarding the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) took place on Thursday, 15 April 2021 from 12:00 to 16:30 Geneva time (CEST).
Promote One Health approaches to better understand and reduce the risk of spill-over of emerging infections from animal to human populations and from humans to animals, including from domestic animals.
Work with partners to develop and disseminate joint risk-based guidance for regulation of wet markets and farms to reduce transmission of novel pathogens from humans to animals and vice-versa.
Strengthen regulation of wet markets and discourage the sale or import of wild animals that pose a high risk of transmission of novel pathogens from animals to humans or vice versa.
Conduct risk-based monitoring of animal populations to reduce disease transmission from animals to humans. Monitoring efforts should prioritize potential high-risk animal populations that may become reservoirs or lead to emergence of novel viruses or variants.”View Publication
One Health: Preventing and combating pandemics worldwide
April 19, 2021
Title: Global Project on Pandemic Prevention and Preparedness, One Health
Commissioned by: German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ)
Overall term: 2021 to 2024
“ … The pathogen causing this pandemic, SARS-CoV-2, has drawn attention to the importance of zoonotic diseases, in other words diseases that can be transferred from animals to humans. Many infectious diseases that are widespread among humans have their origin in the animal realm. Experts estimate that there are still around 1.7 million unknown viruses in wild mammals and birds. Of these, approximately 700,000 have the potential to cross over to humans. …
… The term ‘One Health’ stands for an end-to-end, interdisciplinary approach. It strives to improve global health and reduce risks. To this end, One Health considers interdependencies and interactions between human, animal and environmental health. …
… One Health is committed to preventive measures in all three areas. The German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) strives to mainstream this approach in international (development) cooperation across different sectors. … ”View Publication
Fighting COVID-19 in animals and humans, a one health approach
April 18, 2021
Fighting COVID-19 in animals and humans, a one health approach
Status: ongoing project
Results of this research will provide evidence-based advice on how to deal with animals in the COVID-19 pandemic that is urgently needed at the national or international level.
Anti-Vaxxers and Vaccine Hesitancy: A Cottage Industry Gone Big Time
April 15, 2021
*Note: Seifman is a member of the One Health Initiative Advisory BoardView Publication
Ranking the risk of animal-to-human spillover for newly discovered viruses
April 12, 2021
The recent emergence and spread of zoonotic viruses, including Ebola virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, demonstrate that animal-sourced viruses are a very real threat to global public health. Virus discovery efforts have detected hundreds of new animal viruses with unknown zoonotic risk. We developed an open-source risk assessment to systematically evaluate novel wildlife-origin viruses in terms of their zoonotic spillover and spread potential. Our tool will help scientists and governments assess and communicate risk, informing national disease prioritization, prevention, and control actions. The resulting watchlist of potential pathogens will identify targets for new virus countermeasure initiatives, which can reduce the economic and health impacts of emerging diseases.
The death toll and economic loss resulting from the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic are stark reminders that we are vulnerable to zoonotic viral threats. Strategies are needed to identify and characterize animal viruses that pose the greatest risk of spillover and spread in humans and inform public health interventions. Using expert opinion and scientific evidence, we identified host, viral, and environmental risk factors contributing to zoonotic virus spillover and spread in humans. We then developed a risk ranking framework and interactive web tool, SpillOver, that estimates a risk score for wildlife-origin viruses, creating a comparative risk assessment of viruses with uncharacterized zoonotic spillover potential alongside those already known to be zoonotic. Using data from testing 509,721 samples from 74,635 animals as part of a virus discovery project and public records of virus detections around the world, we ranked the spillover potential of 887 wildlife viruses. Validating the risk assessment, the top 12 were known zoonotic viruses, including SARS-CoV-2. Several newly detected wildlife viruses ranked higher than known zoonotic viruses. Using a scientifically informed process, we capitalized on the recent wealth of virus discovery data to systematically identify and prioritize targets for investigation. The publicly accessible SpillOver platform can be used by policy makers and health scientists to inform research and public health interventions for prevention and rapid control of disease outbreaks. SpillOver is a living, interactive database that can be refined over time to continue to improve the quality and public availability of information on viral threats to human health.