One Health Publications

COVID Infodemic: What and Who to Believe

October 2, 2020

“These days every hour we are inundated by data and information so much so the World Health Organization (WHO)  coined a word for it “infodemic”. It is defined as “an overabundance of information – some accurate and some not – that makes it hard for people to find trustworthy sources and reliable guidance when they need it.”  …

… In short, in this article, I provide only the tip of the COVID-19 infodemic iceberg. The extent to which the COVID-19 story will reflect responsible reporting, mere “optimism”, falsehoods, or dangerous hyperbole, only we the public, and time will tell. But where we are today is shaped by our preconceptions, emotions, and politics.

Let us hope we get wiser with time.”

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We must take a One Health approach to improve human pandemic infection control

October 1, 2020


We must take a One Health approach to improve human pandemic infection control

From a healthcare perspective, they emphasised the importance of a One Health approach which embraces human, animal, and environmental health …

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One Health approach key in tackling increasing risk of zoonotic diseases

September 28, 2020

“Collaborative public health measures, such as those adopted in a One Health approach, are needed to address the potential health impacts of bushfires, climate change and coronavirus pandemic.

The essay below, by Nicodemus Masila, was submitted for the National Public Health Think Tank Competition and has been selected by Croakey for publication. The competition is an initiative of the Students and Young Professionals in Public Health (SYPPH) Committee of the Public Health Association of Australia

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Appreciating the microbes around us and within us

September 27, 2020

Uniontown Herald Standard

Healthy microbiomes in the soil, as maintained by organic farmers, mean … and chemical fertilizers on agricultural soils is a major One Health issue.

“… The impact of herbicides, fungicides, insecticides and chemical fertilizers on agricultural soils is a major One Health issue. …”

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Animal Doctor: Humans with COVID-19 could put other animal species at risk

September 26, 2020

“… Surely the thing for any sane and civil society to do is to practice effective preventive medicine from a One Health perspective, which first calls for a total revision of our relationships with animals.”

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Drs. Feyissa and Andzenge launch ‘Jumping In’ Podcast

September 26, 2020

“… Previous Jumping In podcast series topics have included Open Universities in the African continent; the One Health Workforce project and why multidisciplinary initiatives like it are valuable in the fight against COVID and other zoonotic diseases; opportunities the COVID-19 pandemic presents for online universities; and the Learning Technologies Media Lab at UMN, which was an incubator for the development of thought, theory, and educational technologies. …”

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Minister Hackett launches Code of Good Practice Regarding Responsible Use of Antimicrobials in Sheep

September 25, 2020


Launching it, the Minister said ‘‘This Code of Good Practice will serve as a useful tool for sheep farmers as they work to address the ‘One Health’ challenge of Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR).” …

… “What does ‘One Health’ mean?

The ‘One Health’ concept is a worldwide strategy for expanding interdisciplinary collaborations and communications in all aspects of health care for humans, animals and the environment. Recognising that human health, animal health and ecosystem health are inextricably linked, ‘One Health’ seeks to promote, improve and defend the health and well-being of all species by enhancing cooperation and collaboration between physicians, veterinarians, other scientific health and environmental professionals and by promoting strengths in leadership and management to achieve these goals.

There is international consensus through the ‘One Health’ Initiative to which the WHO (World Health Organisation), FAO (Food and Agriculture Organisation) and the OIE (World Health Organisation for Animal Health) are signatories, that tackling the global public health threat of AMR requires action across human and animal health sectors, agriculture and the wider environment. …”

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One Health: Link Between Human, Animal, and Environmental Health

September 23, 2020

U.S. National Library of Medicine

ToxTutor: Learn Essential Principles of Toxicology

One Health

One Health is a worldwide concept and strategy recognizing that the health of people, animals, and the environment are all connected. For example, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) works with physicians, veterinarians, ecologists, and many others to monitor and control public health threats and to learn about how diseases spread among people, animals, and the environment.

Link Between Human, Animal, and Environmental Health

One Health is important at the local, regional, national, and global levels, and there are many examples of its importance. One example of how human, animal, and environmental health are linked involves bacteria, cows, farms, food, lettuce, and humans …

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Humans with COVID-19 could put other animal species at risk

September 20, 2020

“…  Analysis of 410 species of birds, fish, amphibians, reptiles and mammals found that about 40% of those that are thought to be highly susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 are considered threatened or endangered. These include the Western lowland gorilla, Sumatran orangutan and Northern white-cheeked gibbon, which are predicted to be at very high risk of infection by SARS-CoV-2. Gray whales, bottlenose dolphins, white-tailed deer and Chinese hamsters are at high risk; cats, cows and sheep are at medium risk; and dogs, pigs and horses are at low risk.

This valuable contribution to our understanding of the potential threat of this virus to other species calls for One Health ( precautionary measures to minimize — and ideally prevent — infected humans from infecting other animals. Those animals, if infected, could then serve as reservoirs to reinfect people — or, if endangered, they could become extinct. …”

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Effectiveness of Cloth Masks for Protection Against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2

September 18, 2020


Cloth masks have been used in healthcare and community settings to protect the wearer from respiratory infections. The use of cloth masks during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is under debate. The filtration effectiveness of cloth masks is generally lower than that of medical masks and respirators; however, cloth masks may provide some protection if well designed and used correctly. Multilayer cloth masks, designed to fit around the face and made of water-resistant fabric with a high number of threads and finer weave, may provide reasonable protection. Until a cloth mask design is proven to be equally effective as a medical or N95 mask, wearing cloth masks should not be mandated for healthcare workers. In community settings, however, cloth masks may be used to prevent community spread of infections by sick or asymptomatically infected persons, and the public should be educated about their correct use.

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Senior Monitoring, Evaluation, and Learning Officer

September 18, 2020

“… Our educational programs promote and facilitate collaborative activities and projects among the countries with an emphasis on improving One Health workforce capacity with cross-sectoral competencies to effectively prevent, detect, and respond to all hazards and emerging threats. Examples of our educational initiatives include the development of One Health core and technical competencies, curriculum development and strengthening, introducing innovative teaching methodologies such as One Health problem-based learning cases, building research capacity to provide an evidence-base for One Health advocacy, One Health student clubs, and scholarship and fellowship programs to support long-term capacity development. …”

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Employing a One Health Approach to Mitigate Future Pandemic Threats – Grand Rounds Lecture to National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)

September 15, 2020

An outstanding visionary One Health presentation …

*Gregory C. Gray, MD, MPH, FIDSA
Duke One Health:      Email:


*Dr. Gray, Professor, Duke University School of Medicine, Duke Infectious Diseases & Duke Global Health Institute, Durham, North Carolina (USA) and Program in Emerging Infectious Diseases Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School Singapore. Formerly, Director, One Health Center of Excellence for Research & Training, Professor Department of Environmental and Global Health, College of Public Health and Health Professions, and Infectious Diseases and Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida (USA). Gray is a member of the One Health Initiative Autonomous pro bono Team’s Advisory Board (Hon.) and was recently awarded an Honorary Diploma from the American Veterinary Epidemiology Society (AVES)

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Perspective Can the One Health Approach Save Us from the Emergence and Reemergence of Infectious Pathogens in the Era of Climate Change: Implications for Antimicrobial Resistance?

September 14, 2020

Abstract: Climate change has become a controversial topic in today’s media despite decades of warnings from climate scientists and has influenced human health significantly with the increasing prevalence of infectious pathogens and contribution to antimicrobial resistance. Elevated temperatures lead to rising sea and carbon dioxide levels, changing environments and interactions between humans and other species. These changes have led to the emergence and reemergence of infectious pathogens that have already developed significant antimicrobial resistance. Although these new infectious pathogens are alarming, we can still reduce the burden of infectious diseases in the era of climate change if we focus on One Health strategies. This approach aims at the simultaneous protection of humans, animals and environment from climate change and antimicrobial impacts. Once these relationships are better understood, these models can be created, but the support of our legislative and health system partnerships are critical to helping with strengthening education and awareness.




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What role for One Health in the COVID-19 pandemic?

September 11, 2020


This commentary discusses the contributions that One Health (OH) principles can make in improving the global response to the COVID-19 pandemic. We highlight four areas where the application of OH has the potential to significantly improve the governance of infectious diseases in general, and of COVID-19 in particular. First, more integrated surveillance infrastructure and monitoring of the occurrence of infectious diseases in both humans and animals can facilitate the detection of new infectious agents sharing similar genotypes across species and the monitoring of the spatio-temporal spread of such infections. This knowledge can guide public and animal health officials in their response measures. Second, application of the OH approach can improve coordination and active collaboration among stakeholders representing apparently incompatible domains. Third, the OH approach highlights the need for an effective institutional landscape, facilitating adequate regulation of hotspots for transmission of infectious agents among animals and humans, such as live animal markets. And finally, OH thinking emphasizes the need for equitable solutions to infectious disease challenges, suggesting that policy response mechanisms and interventions need to be reflective of the disproportionate disease burdens borne by vulnerable and marginalized populations, or by persons providing health care and other essential services to those sick.

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COVID-19, Conservation, and Combating Wildlife Trafficking: Breaking the Silos of Conservation and Public Health

September 10, 2020

Collaborating across conservation and international development sectors to mitigate zoonotic disease transmission from wildlife to humans

 One Health promotes improved data sharing, communication, and cross-sectoral coordination among agencies to improve understanding of …

“… Public health professionals face increased pressure to understand and prevent zoonotic diseases. During the webinar, Jim Desmond, a wildlife veterinarian based in Liberia, presented the idea of One Health as an approach to treating all life and all health as interconnected. One Health promotes improved data sharing, communication, and cross-sectoral coordination among agencies to improve understanding of transmission pathways for disease between animals and humans to better inform control measures to prevent large scale outbreaks. Michael offered concrete suggestions for improved collaboration between the wildlife, forestry, security, customs, and health sectors, including expanded coordination through the Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species (CITES). At present, lack of such coordination, both at the local and global scale, is creating barriers to meaningful action on prevention of zoonotic disease outbreaks. Could the One Health approach provide a framework towards better collaboration?

“If we address the threats to wildlife, we would be addressing the risk of contact with wildlife at the local level and making sure there are less opportunities for zoonotic diseases to jump to human beings.” —Michael Balinga, biodiversity advisor for the WA-BiCC project

Countries like Vietnam and Liberia offer demonstrated success cases for One Health approaches in responding to and preventing zoonotic diseases at the national level. In Liberia, following the initial Ebola outbreak, a One Health platform was established to bring together government leaders responsible for forestry, environment, health, and agriculture, along with the National Public Health Institute and non-governmental organization to improve understanding of where these diseases come from. As a result, these entities now meet weekly to ensure if there is another zoonotic disease outbreak, they can quickly allocate resources and develop teams to investigate the issue. …”

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